Download Parsing beyond context-free grammars by Laura Kallmeyer PDF

By Laura Kallmeyer

ISBN-10: 364214845X

ISBN-13: 9783642148453

Given that context-free grammars (CFG) can't correctly describe usual languages, grammar formalisms past CFG which are nonetheless computationally tractable are of principal curiosity for computational linguists. This e-book offers an intensive evaluation of the formal language panorama among CFG and PTIME, relocating from Tree adjacent Grammars to a number of Context-Free Grammars after which to diversity Concatenation Grammars whereas explaining to be had parsing recommendations for those formalisms. even supposing familiarity with the elemental notions of parsing and formal languages is useful while analyzing this booklet, it isn't a strict requirement. The presentation is supported with many illustrations and examples on the subject of the various formalisms and algorithms, and bankruptcy summaries, difficulties and recommendations. The publication can be worthwhile for college students and researchers in computational linguistics and in formal language theory.

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Example text

Ml . Then the constant growth property holds for L with n yi | there are x1 , . . , xm such that c0 := max{Σi=1 { y1 , . . , yn + n1 x1 + · · · + nm xm | ni ∈ IN} is one of the sets M1 , . . , Ml } and n yi | there are x1 , . . , xm such that C := {Σi=1 {x1 + n1 y1 , . . , yn + · · · + nm xm | ni ∈ IN} is one of the sets M1 , . . , Ml }. Parikh has shown that a language is semilinear if and only if it is letter equivalent to a regular language. The proof is given in (Kracht, 2003, p.

Xi [. ] . . Xn with Xj ∈ N ∪ T for j = i, Xi ∈ N . 32 2 Grammar Formalisms for Natural Languages S ⇒ Ag ⇒ Af g ∗ ⇒ Af f f g ⇒ Bf f f g ⇒ Bf f gBf f g ∗ ⇒ Bf gBf gBf gBf g ∗ ⇒ BgBgBgBgBgBgBgBg ∗ ⇒ aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa production S → Ag production A → Af production A → B production Bf → BB production Bg → aa 4 Fig. 11. 12. ]b T [#] → ε Fig. 12. LIG for the copy language It has been shown that LIG and TAG are weakly equivalent (Vijay-Shanker, 1987; Vijay-Shanker and Weir, 1994). When constructing a LIG that is equivalent to a given TAG, whenever an adjunction is performed, while traversing the adjoined tree, the stack can be used to keep track of the tree one has to go back to once the adjunction is finished.

This can be done again by giving its start and end positions. Consequently, Earley items have the form [A → α • β, i, j] with A → αβ ∈ P and 0 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ n. Even in items containing only single categories instead of entire productions, we might want to distinguish between predicted and completed categories. This can be done either using a corresponding flag inside the items or using a dot that precedes (prediction) or follows (completion) the category. 44 3 Parsing: Preliminaries Items consisting of a single category and its span are called passive items while items containing a dotted production and its span are called active items.

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Parsing beyond context-free grammars by Laura Kallmeyer


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