Galen used to be one of the best scientific author of antiquity and positively the main prolific. His Anatomical tactics (c. two hundred CE) embodies the result of a life of useful learn; it's mostly in line with verbatim notes of lectures brought in the course of genuine demonstrations of dissection. The paintings includes fifteen books, of which basically the 1st eight-and-a-half have survived within the unique Greek. An Arabic translation of the full paintings has survived, even if, and this has made attainable the interpretation of the ultimate six-and-a-half books (parts of publication nine and books 10-15). Duckworth's translation was once initially made of a German translation of 1906, yet for this 1962 variation it used to be revised by means of Lyons, operating at once from the Arabic textual content, with the co-operation of Towers. glossy names for the elements of the physique are inserted in brackets, and an anatomical index is equipped.
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In an ape none of the bodily parts, which in 2g other animals form the two fore-limbs, sustains any damage when the spinal marrow is cut through, unless the cut reaches the first of the intercostal spaces. But if you cut the marrow [spinal cord] behind the first thoracic rib, that then damages the hand of the ape. And should the cut follow a line behind the second thoracic rib, then that does not damage the arm, except that the skin of the axillary cavity, and the first subdivisions of the region of the upper arm turned towards the trunk become deprived of sensibility; and you also see, similarly, that the extent of sensibility which the region indicated is going to lose is small when you make the cut behind the third rib.
And wrapped around them the third structure, which serves the marrow as a preservative and a covering and a protection, surrounds both of them outwardly. The place from which this structure grows out, its site of origin, is on the skull, and its nature is that of a hgament, since it grows out from the bones, just as is the case with the outgrowth of the rest of the ligaments. Besides this, it binds together the vertebrae in front, since, folded up, it breaks in upon the spaces between them. When you have cut away the bones from behind, at the place at which, as I said, lies the root of the dorsal ridge, and you see this hgament lying exposed to view, then insert at that place which you have laid open, a broad tool of the class of the instrument which one calls a spatula, between the third outer covering, of which I said that by its nature it is a hgament, and the vertebra enclosing it.
You then see how the animal blinks with its eyes, especially when you bring some object near to the eyes, even when you have exposed to view theposterior ventricle. Should you go towards the animal while it is in this condition, and should you press upon some one part of the two anterior ventricles, no matter which part it may be, in the place where as I stated the root of the two optic nerves lies, thereupon the animal ceases to blink with its two eyes, even when you bring some object near to the pupils, and the whole appearance of the eye on the side on which lies the ventricle of the brain upon which you are pressing becomes like the eyes of blind men.
Galen on Anatomical Procedures: The Later Books by Galen