By R.J. Holton
Towns, Capitalism and Civilization appears on the personality and strong point of Western Civilization. R.J. Holton units out to problem the idea that towns and concrete social sessions have shaped the most section of the improvement of civilization, and the primary dynamic of Western capitalism. This booklet was once first released in 1986.
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Extra info for Cities, Capitalism and Civilization (Routledge Library Editions: The City)
I n this case t h e value of t h e AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE=its cost price. Only differential r e n t could b e paid t h e n . T h e land which yields n o differential r e n t b u t only a n AGRICULTURAL RENT, could t h e n pay n o r e n t . F o r if t h e f a r m e r sells t h e agricultural p r o d u c e at its value, it only covers its cost price. He t h e r e f o r e pays n o r e n t . T h e PROPRIETOR m u s t t h e n cultivate t h e l a n d himself, o r t h e so-called fermage* collected by h i m is a p a r t of his t e n a n t ' s profit o r even of his wages.
Instead of 80c + 20t;, [the outlay is] now 844/wc+ 1515/igv, profit 15 15 /i9, value of the product 115 I 5 / 1 9 . For capital 2). Now only 30 laid out in wages, since 1U of 40=10 and 40—10=30. The product=60 c + 30i; and the surplus value=30. ) On a capital of 90 [the wages] = 33Vs%- For [a capital of] 100 the ratio is: 662/sc + 33'/3v and the value = 133*/3. The rate of profit=33V3For capital 3). Now only 11 lU [laid out] in wages, for lU of 15=3 3 / 4 and 1 5 - 3 3 / 4 = l l 1 / 4 . ~ U-v. vjuvf.
A n d how is the QUANTITY OF LABOUR THEY COMMAND d e t e r m i n e d ? By the Theories of Surplus Value. ) Moreover here he confuses—as Ricardo also often does—labour, the intrinsic measure of value, with money, the external measure, which presupposes that value is already determined; although he and Ricardo have declared that labour is QUANTITY OF CORN THAT LABOUR COMMANDS. , p . 8 0 ) . Adam Smith errs when he concludes from the fact that a definite quantity of labour is EXCHANGEABLE for a definite quantity of use value, that this definite quantity of labour is the measure of value and that it always has the same value, whereas the same quantity of use value can represent very different exchange values.
Cities, Capitalism and Civilization (Routledge Library Editions: The City) by R.J. Holton