By Neil C. Rowe
Man made Intelligence via Prolog e-book
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Note that steps 6-11 involve what is often called parsing, that is, syntactic analysis or identifying the relations among the elements of a sentence. In more recent systems, the parsing process and the result of parsing are quite different from what is found in Systran. Many recent systems use a set of phrase structure rules. A very simple grammar might consist of the following three rules: S → NP VP NP → (Det) (Adj) N VP → V (NP) 26 THE POSSIBILITY OF LANGUAGE Roughly, the first line says that a sentence (S) consists of a noun phrase (NP), the subject, followed by a verb phrase (VP).
Transfer to target-language words and adjust target structure as needed 16. Inflect target-language words 17. Order target-language words appropriately Figure 1: Steps in Systran's translation process MACHINE TRANSLATION 25 In English, a rule might be applied that says a noun/verb homograph preceded by an adjective will be assumed to be a noun. For example, 'big hopes' will be assumed to contain a noun usage of 'hopes' while 'he hopes' will be assumed to be a verb usage of 'hopes'. Of course there are exceptions to this rule, such as the sentence "the pig that is big hopes to escape from the wolf".
Later, we will enter into rather intricate discussions of the nature of meaning. Bar-Hillel gave as an example of the need for real-world knowledge the now-famous sentence "The box is in the pen". The word 'pen' has at least two senses: 'enclosure for a small child to play in, a play pen' and 'writing instrument'. Bar-Hillel argued that even though a human would probably conclude that in the given sentence 'pen' refers to a play pen, this conclusion is based on real-world knowledge about the relative sizes of boxes and pens.
Artifical intelligence through Prolog by Neil C. Rowe